Hydro policy development and the importance of increasing financial resources
Dr. Alba Dumi1, Bledar Shkurtaj2, Msc. Terida Mehilli3
1Universiteti ”Ismail Qemali”, Vlorë
2Universiteti Bujqësor i Tiranës, Fakulteti i Ekonomisë dhe Agrobiznesit
3Departamenti i Economiksit, Universiteti “Ismail Qemali”, Vlorё
Thinking about your local reservoir may conjure visions of water sports, fishing, or picnicking, but reservoirs serve a much more vital purpose. Reservoirs, or man-made lakes, are typically created by building dams across rivers (some also occur naturally). Reservoirs even out the fluctuations in a water supply by storing water when it is abundant and releasing it later, especially when water supply diminishes during drought. Water towers, a familiar sight along nearly every highway in America, help to make sure that water deliveries remain relatively constant even during peak water use times. Their main purpose, however is to elevate the water level high enough to supply adequate water pressure throughout a distribution system. As demand for water increases, so does the need for new reservoirs. Managed underground storage systems do not require the requisition of large amounts of land that surface reservoirs do, and loss of water through evaporation is not a problem. Nevertheless, underground storage does pose some challenges.
Among them are the generally high costs of design, construction, and monitoring, and the potential for contamination from chemical reactions between the water and aquifer materials.
The National Research Council Sanitation presents even more problems than drinking water. Sanitation coverage in urban areas is almost the same as drinking water coverage. Urban areas have mostly combined sewage and storm water collection networks that discharge into near bay surface water bodies. About 40% of the urban population has a sewer connection.
Key words: Demand for Water, Agricultural policies, Land programs, Finance support.